بررسی ویژگی‌های تشریحی، عملکردی گیاه نیشکر (Saccharum officinarum L.) و میزان پتاسیم خاک در پاسخ به نیترات پتاسیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 بخش آب و خاک شناسی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی شرکت کشت و صنعت امیرکبیر، اهواز

چکیده

پتاسیم که بعد از ازت، فراوان‌ترین میزان مصرف عناصر در گیاهان را دارد، کارکردهای بسیار مهمی برای تنظیم پتانسیل اسمزی سلول، حفظ و نگهداری آماس، نمو سلول و فعالیت روزنه دارد. نیشکر (Saccharum officinarum L.) محصول مهم برای تامین قند و صنایع­جانبی است و با توجه به زیست‌توده بالا، نیاز به جذب مقدار زیادی پتاسیم در سراسر چرخه­حیات خود دارد. این تحقیق در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کاملا تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقات کاربردی کشت و صنعت امیرکبیر انجام شد. برای انجام تحقیق ، تیمار کود نیترات­پتاسیم در سه سطح شاهد، 75 و 150 کیلوگرم درهکتار اعمال شد. در طی اجرای طرح تراکم، عملکرد، وزن ساقه، میزان پتاسیم قابل­جذب، پتاسیم تثبیت­شده و ساختار تشریحی بخش­های هوایی گیاه مطالعه گردید. اعمال تیمار کود پتاسیم بر میزان تراکم و عملکرد گیاه در مزرعه تغییرات معنی‌داری نشان نداد. همچنین میزان پتاسیم تثبیت­شده تحت تاثیر تیمار کود پتاسیم تغییرات معنی­داری را نشان نداد، اما در تیمار 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار، اختلاف معنی­داری در میزان پتاسیم قابل­جذب دیده شد. میزان وزن ساقه در تیمار 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار نسبت به نمونه شاهد و تیمار 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار، اختلاف معنی­داری نشان­داد. اغلب صفات تشریحی، تغییرات معنی­داری را در گیاه نیشکر تحت تیمار پتاسیم نشان‌دادند. مصرف کود پتاسیم در زمان استفاده موجب بهترشدن شرایط رشد نیشکر نشد. تغییرات تشریحی اندام­های هوایی به مصرف کود پتاسیم بیانگر سازگاری تشریحی گیاه به افزایش پتاسیم خاک است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Survey of anatomical features, yeild reaction of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) and the amount of soil potassium in response to potassium nitrate

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam kolahi 1
  • Sobhan Mousavi 1
  • Hossein Haj sharafi 2
  • Mehdi mosavati 1
  • mohammad hosein sheikhorezaei 1
  • Elham saffar 1
  • Atefeh Kord zangeneh 1
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamram University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Department of Soil and Water, Agricultural Research Amir Kabir Agro-Industry Company. Ahvaz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

After Nitrogen, Potassium is an essential and most consumed element, in plant’s growth. Potassium has very important functions to regulation the osmotic potential of the cell amass retention, the development of cells and stomata activity. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.), as an important product for the supply sugar and side industries, due to the high biomass need to attract a large amount of potassium during its life cycle. This research was done as a complete randomized block design, in applied research farm of Amir-Kabir Agro-industry. To do research, treatment of potassium nitrate fertilizer was applied at three levels, control, 75 and 150 kg/h potassium. During the implementation of the research the density, yield, weight of stem, amount of available, fixed potassium and anatomical structure of plant aerial part were studied. Applying potassium fertilizer on treatment did not show significant changes on density and yield of the plant in the farm. As well as the amount of fixed potassium under the influence of potassium fertilizer treatment did not show significant changes, but in treatment 150 kg/ha, a significant difference in the amount of available potassium was seen. The amount of the stem weight in the treatment of 150 kg/ha potassium in compared to control and treatment of 75 kg/ ha potassium showed significant difference. Often anatomical characteristics showed significant changes in sugarcane under the potassium treatment. The consumption of potassium fertilizer at the time of use didn’t developed growing conditions of sugarcane. Anatomical changes of aerial organs under the potassium fertilizer consumption represented the anatomical adaptation of plant to increase the soil potassium.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anatomy
  • Fixed potassium
  • Potassium fertilizer
  • Sugarcane
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